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      2020年經濟學人 物理學家弗里曼·戴森(1)






      Freeman Dyson, physicist and big thinker, died on February 28th, aged 96.


      There are, wrote Freeman Dyson towards the end of his long life, two different kinds of mathematicians. Some are birds, who fly high, surveying the broad vistas and spotting unexpected links between different bits of the mathematical landscape. Others are frogs, who prefer to be up close and on the ground, delighting in the details and the beauty of the flowers. He counted himself among the frogs, and started there.

      弗里曼·戴森在他漫長生命的最后寫道,世上有兩種不同的數學家。有些數學家是鳥類,他們飛得很高,喜歡觀察廣闊的遠景,發現數學景觀的不同部分之間意 想不到的聯系。其他的數學家是青蛙,他們更喜歡靠近地面,喜歡花朵的細節和美麗。他把自己看做青蛙那一類數學家,他也是從那里開始。

      At the age of 24 he made a fundamental contribution to the study of Diophantine equations, a branch of mathematics dating back to the ancient Greeks. A year later he resolved a tricky conundrum in quantum electrodynamics, a field so new that it had hardly existed when he was born. But already the airborne tendencies were stirring. He was fascinated by biology, engineering, international relations and, in particular, physics, at which he became a master. For him, it was an ideal subject. Its mathematical underpinnings might be abstruse and theoretical, but in the 20th century those theories handed blunt, world-changing power to nations that could master their applications.


      In the second world war, he applied his mathematics at Britain's Bomber Command to calculate the most destructive (but safe) formations for the planes to fly in. After the war, when he moved to the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, he rubbed shoulders with both Albert Einstein, whose theorising on relativity he had revered since boyhood, and Robert Oppenheimer, who had developed the atomic bomb.



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