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      > 在線聽力 > 英語高級聽力 > 經濟學人(中英對照+MP3) >  第3259課

      2020年經濟學人 物理學家弗里曼·戴森(3)

      所屬教程:經濟學人(中英對照+MP3)

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      qinting

      2021年01月08日

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      https://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0008/8555/2020jjxr500251.mp3
      https://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012

      In 1958 he was briefly lured away from his professorship at the IAS to work on Project Orion: a plan to build a rocket, propelled by nuclear power, that would be faster and more efficient than any other. The basic principle was to throw a stream of nuclear bombs out of the back of the rocket, detonate them, and ride the shockwaves to Mars and beyond. On paper, it seemed to work. Flight tests on small models, using conventional explosives, were encouraging.

      1958年,弗里曼被誘使暫時離開了航空科學學院的教授職位,為獵戶座計劃工作:獵戶座計劃是一個由核能推動的火箭建造計劃,這種火箭將比其他任何計劃都更快、更有效率。其基本原理是將大量核彈從火箭尾部發射出去,引爆它們,然后火箭利用沖擊波飛向火星和更遠的地方。理論上,這似乎是可行的。使用常規炸藥對小型模型進行的飛行試驗令人鼓舞。

      Orion could reach Mars in weeks, where chemical rockets would take six months or more. A more powerful version could cross the vast void to Alpha Centauri, the nearest star to the sun, in a bit over a century. Since the bigger the rocket, the more efficient it was, he proposed a 240m-ton ship 90 miles in diameter, designed to carry thousands of colonists and make humanity an interstellar species. Whether he was serious, even he may not have known.

      “獵戶座”火箭可以在幾周內到達火星,而化學燃料火箭則需要6個月甚至更長時間。一個更強大的火箭可能在一個多世紀后穿過這片巨大的空間,到達離太陽最近的半人馬座阿爾法星。由于火箭越大,效率越高,弗里曼提議建造一艘直徑90英里、重2.4億噸的飛船,用以運送成千上萬的殖民者,使人類成為星際物種。弗里曼是否是認真的,即使他可能也不知道。

      The project was scuppered in the end by a mix of political queasiness over the fallout (rather literally—later modelling suggested that each launch of a modestly-sized rocket from Earth's surface would kill about ten people) and the partial test ban treaty of 1963, which forbade nuclear explosions except underground. He was involved in that too, arguing in favour of the ban, in his clipped home-counties tones, in front of America's Senate. Since the power they had unleashed thrust physicists into high places, he also became a government adviser on science and grand strategy.

      由于政治上對它帶來后果的種種不安,該項目最終泡了湯。(更確切地說,后來的模型表明,從地球表面發射一枚中等大小的火箭,每發射一次,大約會造成10人死亡。)1963年的《部分禁止核試驗條約》禁止了核爆炸,除非在地下進行。弗里曼也參與其中,在美國參議院,他以家鄉縣清脆快速的語調,為該禁令辯護。因為他們放權把物理學家猛地推向了高層,弗里曼還成為了政府科學和大戰略的顧問。

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